Think, that dating glass inkwells idea)))) Quite right!
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Specifically, this page addresses non-food products clearly used in households across the United States and Canada. These products were also used, of course, by businesses, schools, government offices, and other non-household entities. The "household" aka "personal" bottles category has been used by archaeologists - and collectors to some degree - for many years although the actual bottle types contained within the category varies significantly Herskovitz ; Berge ; Univ. In the end, there has never been total agreement on the categorization hierarchy of bottle types and probably never will be. The other typology pages e.
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Both these described machine-made ink bottles exhibit no sign of the concentric, horizontal finishing 0r lipping tool induced marks that would be present on a mouth-blown finish which was hand tooled to shape. A somewhat analogous phenomenon is noted on many press-and-blown, machine-made milk bottles produced during the first half of the 20th century. Other images of cylindrical ink bottles are available by clicking on the following links:.
This is also a very large group of bottles - undoubtedly numbering in the many thousands of different shapes and variations.
Square ink bottles first appeared in any quantities around the time of the American Civil War, after cylindrical inks were well established; square pontiled ink bottles are very unusual. Note: Square ink wells appeared earlier with some of the first American made examples [ pattern molded ] reportedly produced by the Pitkin Glass Works East Hartford, CN. Later ink bottles late 19th century through most of the 20th were commonly made with square bodies, rivaling cylindrical shapes in popularity.
Rectangular pontiled ink bottles are a bit more common than square pontiled ones though still unusual. Conversely to square ink bottles, rectangular inks largely disappeared in the early s in American bottle makers catalogs; rectangular machine-made ink bottles are uncommon Illinois Glass Co. In England, rectangular "boat" inks were still commonly made until at least WW1 covered below.
In addition, virtually identical bottles although in amber glass are known that are embossed on the "roof" with S. Covill There were an assortment of house ink bottles made during the 19th century making them a very esthetic addition to ones desk and very likely increasing the sales of the users ink vendor of such bottles Covill The carmine style also made the leap onto automatic machines with a very similar look and name being made until at least the s Fairmount Glass Co.
Although the style was called a "carmine" by bottle makers, they were also used for other ink colors Covill Back to the pictured bottle This bottle has a tooled patent style finish, was blown in a cup-base mold, is 2" 5. Given the company begin date noted, the evidence except for a lack of air venting points towards a likely manufacturing range of and Click base view to see the cup-base mold produced base.
An illustration of the "carmine" style ink bottle being offered by the Illinois Glass Co. An example of a very large 10 oz. The colorless faintly manganese dioxide induced "pink" ink bottle pictured to the left is embossed on three sides with C. This bottle which is commonly encountered as an unembossed bottle also is 2.
As noted in the introduction to this section, stationary shops aka "stationers" were common purveyors of bottled ink. The commonly encountered ink bottle pictured to the right is a machine-made square ink that is fairly decorative in design. It also has embossing on three of the body sides: 2 OZ. Click base view to see such showing the noted embossing.
This bottle has some manufacturing similarities to the two machine-made cylindrical ink bottles discussed in the box above. Specifically, it has a vertical side mold seam that ends at a horizontal seam that encircles the outside of the bead type lip as well as a horizontal mold seam encircling the bottle shoulder where the lower ring below the neck base meets the upper edge of the shoulder these are pointed out in the larger image one gets by clicking on the image to the right.
This indicates the unusual machine-mold conformation that formed the finish, neck, and upper shoulder in the ring parison mold, as discussed above. This bottle most likely dates from between and Click Sanford's Ink advertisement to see such which shows a very similar ink bottle in one of that companies ads.
For more information, see the company's history page at this link: Sanford history. Various types of square, machine-made ink bottle similar to this with one or two rings at the base of the neck though certainly not all embossed like this example were commonly produced from the s to the s although later ones were also made with external screw threads Illinois Glass Co.
For scores of images of Sanford's ink bottles visit the Sanford's Ink bottles page of the website Ink Bottles. Once again, there are hundreds of not thousands of different and often subtle variations of multi-sided ink bottle theme Covill ; Faulkner with only a few of the more common shapes covered here. The group pictured above are typical having eight equal sides - the most common configuration - though examples with 6, 10, 12, and 16 sixteen sides have also been recorded Covill ; Faulkner This is an interesting group in that they all date from the same time none are pontiled scarred but were finished in three different fashions: the two on the left have rolled finishesthe dark amber in the back has a cracked-off or burst-off finishand the aqua example to the far right has an applied finish.
By the late s they were an insignificant minority of ink bottles produced empirical observations. The author has never observed a machine-made umbrella ink nor found any reference to examples except some modern reproductions some of which are marked JAPAN on the base and the style is thought to have disappeared prior to the introduction of bottle machines capable of produced narrow neck bottles Covill The typical height for most umbrella inks is around 2.
Umbrella inks were made in a myriad of glass colors - essentially any color that a bottle was blown it during the 19th century. Aqua is by far the most commonly used color, though the spectrum is very wide as indicated by the image at this link - umbrella ink color variety - which shows examples ranging from colorless to various shades of amber and green to cobalt blue.
The umbrella ink pictured to the right is an early American example dating from the s or early s. It was most likely made by a New England glass house, although it could also have been produced by a Pennsylvania, New Jersey, or New York maker. It is 2. It has a straight finish that was likely cracked off from the blowpipe then re-heated and tooled a bit to make a smoother finish.
The aqua umbrella ink pictured to the left is a much later version dating most likely from the s though could be from the very first years of the 20th century. This dating estimate is based in part on the context it was found as well as some manufacturing related diagnostic features, i. This example also has some light patination to the surface of the glass from being buried for over years.
Click on base view to see the base of this bottle which has the absence of mold seams typical of cup-base mold produced bottles. This example also has part of the original cork closure and some dried contents visible - and what appears to be dried black ink.
The following multi-sided ink bottles have vertical body sides instead of the inwardly tapering towards the shoulder bodies of the umbrella inks discussed above. This style was most popular during the midth century, i. Some multi-sided, vertical body ink bottles were also made by automatic bottle machines but most inks of that era are cylindrical or 4-sided square and rectangular. Photo courtesy of American Glass Auctions.
The octagonal ink bottles pictured to the left are English in origin. These bottles were burst-off from the blowpipe and received no additional finishing which resulted in the very crude and sharp finish visible in the image click to enlarge. This method of "finishing" a bottle was common with cheap, mouth-blown, utilitarian bottles made in England in the late s to as late as Boow Click labeled English ink to view an identical example from the same era around with the original label indicating its use by an English ink producer for rubber stamp ink.
These bottles also have a vague makers mark on the base not visible in image that resembles the goal posts on a football field.
This mark is certainly one used by a yet unknown English glass company as bases with this mark are documented to have been found in the Ravensbourne River at Deptford, Wiltshire, England Toulouse Although English-made, these type bottles are commonly encountered in North America and are one of most typical bottles to be found with a burst-off finish. Other images of multi-sided more than four sides ink bottles are available by clicking on the following links:.
Distinctive or attractive packaging seemed to have been a common theme in the production of ink bottles, driven by customer demand and glass company ingenuity.
Some commonly encountered or interesting types will be covered briefly in this section.
I'll just call them igloo inks here. Igloo inks were very popular and extensively used for at least 35 to 40 years - through into the early s - particularly in schools.
Since this distinctive style is unknown with either pontil scars or as machine-made bottles, this supports the noted date range well Covill ; empirical observations. The two ink bottles pictured above and again to the right are typical - and the most commonly encountered - examples of igloo ink bottles empirical observations. This firm allegedly first patented the shape on October 31st, ; the earliest examples have that patent date - but not number - embossed on the domed portion of the body.
The pictured bottles are around 1. Both examples pictured were blown in cup-base molds and lack evidence of mold air venting which is a common feature ofthough they were each finished differently. The example on the right above, which is probably the earliest of the two, has a rough burst -off finish which received only the slightest amount of rim grinding to remove some of the sharp edges.
The other example left has a standard tooled finish. Other images of "other shapes" of ink bottles are available by clicking on the following links:. A few ink bottle specific manufacturing related diagnostic features and dating trends have been noted by the author and are discussed as follows:. There were certainly bulk ink bottles which were under 5" in height - like this 3.
One other consideration is that bulk ink bottles tend to have proportionally narrower bores than ink bottles since they were not generally intended to be used to directly fill fountain pens or dip ones quill into empirical observations. Bulk inks were generally made in sizes near one-half pint, pint and quart although other sizes within this range are not uncommon.
There are also certainly bulk inks smaller than 4 ozs. Bulk ink bottles were used to fill inkwells and to some degree empty ink bottles call them "economy" ink wells.
These bottles - especially those without a pouring spout of some type image to the right and above left or without embossing indicating the use by an ink producer or seller - are often referred to as "utility" bottles since they could have been used for a wide array of non-carbonated liquid products.
The only way to tell if a "utility" bottle was used for ink is if the bottle is still labeled indicating such use, has ink residue inside not uncommonly seenor it has a pouring spout which is a strongly indicative diagnostic feature of a bulk ink Covill ; empirical observations. The general class of u tility bottles are covered later on this page. For simplicity, bulk inks are divided into two subsets here - cylindrical and non-cylindrical. The blue-green bulk ink pictured to the right is discussed below.
As noted in other sections of this website, cylindrical bodies are inherently stronger than other body shapes all other things being equal, e. The subjective speculation of this author as to why the majority were cylindrical may well have revolved around the potential nasty mess one would have if a bottle of ink broke versus other less messy substances.
All are approximately 7. These bottles display the typical conformation of bulk inks made during the last half of the 19th century like the blue-green and cobalt blue examples discussed below.
The two small approx. Both are somewhat generic utility type bottles and neither has a pour spout. So without a label identifying the actual use one can never know for sure although these type bottles were used very commonly for ink. Click on early, pontiled utility bottle with an ink label to see a very similar bottle clearly used for ink.
Both these bottles are typical of the utilitarian items produced by many of the earlier New England and Midwestern glass houses during the s to s period.
Also see Utility Bottles below. The small 4. This particular bottle dates from the s or s, was blown in a true two-piece "keyed" hinge mol has a blowpipe type pontil scar and no evidence of mold air venting.
The small 3.
This small bottle was blown in a three-piece mold lacking any evidence of mold air venting and was found in a context indicating manufacture in the s. These type small utility bottles from the s to early s were commonly made in either two-piece cup-base molds or in a three-piece mold like this example. Click close-up of the shoulder, neck and finish to view the well formed though delicate pour spout; this image also shows the very distinct three-piece mold shoulder and neck seams. This bottle certainly could have been used for medicines of some type, with the pour spout making dosing easier.
However, the big majority of mouth-blown bottles with formed pour spouts were used for ink so it is most likely that was the use of this small bottle also and other ink bottles were found in the same context. This example is 8. It was common during the 19th century and into at least the first third of the 20th century, for bulk ink bottles to be made with bright, eye attracting colored glass; likely for marketing purposes. Click on the following links to see more views of this bottle: close-up of the applied, pour spout finish showing the pour spout which was shaped by some type of glassmakers tool also shown earlier in this section above ; base view showing the slightly indented post-bottom base conformation.
Inkwells are as old as the written word. The first inkwells were probably just fist-sized stones with depressions in them, offering scribes a natural container in which to mix powdered pigments with various types of solvents for their quills and other primitive dipping pens. In Europe, glass inkwells dating from the early 18th century have been noted and advertisements for ink bottles date at least as early as the s (Van den Bossche ; Faulkner ). Historically, it was not until the late 18th to early 19th century that ink was commonly available commercially in liquid form. $ shipping. 19thC Antique Harrach Czech Bohemia Iridescent Glass Soap Bubbles Inkwell. Excellent Original Condition No Reserve! $ shipping. Ending Feb 24 at PM PST. Antique Style Solid Thick Glass Square Cobalt Blue Inkwell Ink pot Bottle. Ending Feb 23 at PM PST. Top Rated Plus Material: Silver.
The tall 8. It has an applied two-part finish that is a cross between the "mineral" the short, sharp lower part and "double ring" types the taller, distinctly rounded upper partwas blown in a two-piece post-bottom mold, lacks evidence of mold air venting, and dates most likely from the late s based on the context it was found in. Click on the following links to see more images of this bottle: base view post-bottom mold production though the seams are not easily visible in the image ; close-up of the shoulder, neck and finish showing the crudely applied finish.
More information on this closure type is found at this link: club sauce type closure. Another general form seen in early to midth century machine-made bulk ink bottles is the amber bottle pictured to the left and in the adjacent illustration.
It has a slightly bulging shoulder and heel and is of a shape used by several ink manufacturers during the noted ear. This particular bottle is 6" tall and 2.
The bottle was sealed with a modified crown cap closure as shown in the illustration. Alton, IL. Toulouse ; close-up of the shoulder, neck and finish showing the standard crown cap accepting finish. A couple examples follow though there are likely hundreds of other examples produced during the period covered by this website.
Photo courtesy of Glass Works Auctions. Apollos W. Most of these bottles are pontil scarred, lack mold air venting, were blown in a true two-piece hinge mold, and have a distinctive flared collared ring finish like the illustrated bottle.
A commonly seen bulk ink bottle from the late s to early s are the very decorative "cathedral" style bottles pictured to the left. These bottles were produced in three different bulk sizes - quart 9. All the bottles are machine-made and utilized a rubber cork closure with a screw cap pour spout on top click on the two bottle image to see the closures. For more images of this bottle style, click on the following links: view of three sizes of these gothic or cathedral style ink bottles; view of the bases of the three sizes.
These bottles were sometime produced in a lighter sapphire blue two bottle image shows color comparison and rarely in colorless glass Faulkner There are no significant bottle type specific, manufacturing related diagnostic features or dating trends that have been noted by the author. As noted at the top of this section on ink bottles, the difference between an "ink bottle" and an "inkwell" is hard to define since they are both small bottles used as "containers for ink" from which a quill or fountain pen was directly filled or dipped Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary Although both were used in a similar fashion - to directly fill a quill or pen - according to Munsey an " In the end, the line is blurred between the two; both are covered as separate bottle "types" on this page.
The first inkstand an inkwell was part of an inkstand which also included writing instruments and a sand shaker for drying was patented in the U. Quincy of Boston, Massachusetts Faulkner Inkwells began fading in popularity by the early twentieth century due to the rise of fountain pens - which were filled directly from the bottle - and later, ballpoint pens which dominated by the midth century Faulkner ; Wikipedia.
Inkwells were produced in a dizzying array of designs and materials including wood, precious metals, pewter and other more common metals, ceramics, a myriad of minerals, and many other substances Even with "just" glass as the forming material the variety of shapes, colors, and types is staggering. For those interested in the subject, both Covill's and the Faulkner's books provide a bit more glimpse into more variety than can or should be addressed on this site as inkwells are really a specialty bottle type and outside this websites goals.
However, a few examples of commonly encountered inkwells will be addressed - examples that are more "bottle-like" and more closely follow the dating rules outlined on this website than not. A straight-on side view of the bottle is available by clicking HERE. Pattern molding was a process of forming a basic design pattern typically ribs on an expanding gob of glass via a dip mold with an engraved design.
The image to the above right is a close-up view of the base of this inkwell showing the blowpipe pontil scar on the base of this inkwell. It also shows the ribbing pattern continuation from the body to the base typical of a pattern molded bottle. It should be noted that some "Pitkin" style inkwells were also made by other regional glasshouses like those in Keene, NH.
Click base view to view the base which shows the pontil scar encircling a small indentation in the base center. The linked image also shows the extensive wear present on the high point edge of the base; a function of these inkwells being used for decades as well as sitting on a shelf for another century or more as these items were rarely discarded unless broken.
This "bottle-like" category of inkwells were produced by several New England glasshouses including the noted Coventry, CT. The very small 1. Note: This bottle is covered here due to the morphological similarity to the geometric inkwells discussed above.
In any event, this ink bottle was likely produced without the aid of a mold i. Click on base view to see the noted pontil scar.
It has a cheap utilitarian look to it compared to the geometric inkwell shown above though has the same basic configuration. It could well have been and probably was sold corked and containing ink; whether it was reused as an inkwell can't be determined. It does appear to have some dark ink residue forming a rough ring around the insides, although this could also be related to its residence in the earth for over years.
Unlike most inkwells that were sold empty and were much more ornate, this particular bottle is of a utilitarian nature and does conform to the dating guidelines found on this website, i.
The cobalt blue inkwell pictured to the left is what is known as a "tea kettle," "turtle," or "fountain" inkwell. It dates from the mid to late 19th century. These type inkwells usually had burst-off or cracked-off finishes which were variably ground down. The finish was usually covered by a hinged, typically brass, ring and cap cap missing on the illustrated example that sealed the bottle when not being used to inhibit evaporation.
The style seems to have been first made during the first quarter of the 19th century Covill ; Faulkner but was most popular from the mids until around or so since pontiled examples are unusual empirical observations. The tea kettle inkwell or ink bottle pictured to the right is another ink that crosses the line between being an inkwell or simple ink bottle. Like the aqua center hole ink bottle above this bottle also has a cheaper, utilitarian look to it compared to the cobalt blue teak kettle ink bottle above, which certainly was intended for indefinite use.
Dating Antique Inkwells - Inkwells, obsolete for years, now prized by collectors; Cher-Ann Home Improvement, How to Collecting Inkwells. Others identify more intricate. This one has 4 quill holes, a deep indented agency around the middle and mitered bottles. You can find a lot of molded glass inkwells in the marketplace, like my. Get the best deals on Collectible Inkwells when you shop the largest online selection at countryconnectionsqatar.com Free shipping on many items Cut Glass Inkwell Indiana Collectible Inkwells. Inkwell Insert. Pewter Inkwell Indiana Collectible Inkwells. This attractive portable wooden desk stand comes complete with two glass inkwells, an integral front drawer and a firm stylised carry handle. Victorian cut glass inkwell, dating back to c, in wonderful condition apart from a chip to the top and a mark at the bottom of the inkwell. Antique Glass Inkwell with Brass Lid. The heavy.
Of course, this bottle could have been reused after the initial purchase with ink. It has a tooled straight finish which accepted a cork closure, an eleven sided body, and has no evidence of mold air venting. It was apparently blown in a true, though asymmetrical, two-piece mold where one portion of the mold formed the base, heel and underside of the neck with the other portion forming the entire body and upper portion of the neck.
Below the patent date is a marking which appears to be three interlinking circles with some faint letters in each circle which is either an unknown bottle makers marking or is related to the company that used the bottle. To view the actual design patent click: Design Patent 11, The patent notes that this was called a "Fountain-Bottle" and specifically patented for the spout angle and bulge at the base of the spout, the pen rests on the top of the body, and feet bumps on the base see base image - or all those features in combination.
The patent was granted to one Michael H. Hagerty of New York, NY. A search of the few references on ink bottles listed the bottle but nothing about what company used the bottle, what the noted marking on the base may mean, nor anything about Mr. Covill did note a variant of this bottle that has PAT. FOR on the base indicating manufacture between April 9,when the patent application was filed, and July 13, when the patent was granted! Since these bottles are fairly scarce in the authors experience, they were probably only made for a few years in the early to mids.
The illustrated bottles, however, were picked specifically because they are types that do follow the dating rules well. Pontil scarred ink bottles generally were made during or before the Civil War, whereas pontiled inkwells being more of a specialty bottlewere occasionally made later in the 19th century empirical observations.
Since inkwells were not made much after the advent of bottle making machines, machine-made inkwells are unusual but may be encountered now and then. As portrayed by the image of an early 19th century pewter inkwell to the left, a lot of late 18th to early 20th century inkwells were not bottles or even made of glass. As noted earlier, inkwells were produced in a dizzying array of designs and materials including wood, precious metals, pewter and other more common metals, ceramics, a myriad of minerals, and many other substances.
However, that can be the subject of another website For more information on the fascinating world of glass ink bottles and inkwells, see the two primary published references used for this section - William Covill's "Ink Bottles and Inkwells" and Ed and Lucy Faulkner's "Inks - Years of Bottles and Companies.
Return to the top of this page. Horses hooves were reportedly a well know component of glue in the past at least according to my parents while growing up! According to online dictionaries, today the term glue seems to be general term used for adhesives including mucilage.
Antique and Vintage Inkwells
In any event, the terms "glue" and "mucilage" are the most commonly seen either embossed or labeled on historic bottles within the time frame covered by this website Covill ; Faulkner What the contained products were specifically made from is somewhat irrelevant to this discussion of historic mucilage and glue bottles.
Suffice to say that the products were both organic in origin versus the widely used synthetic adhesives today.
Mucilage was often packaged in bottles that were the same as those used for ink - in particular, the cone ink style - at least in part, because both products were often made by the same companies Faulkner The linked bottle likely dates from the s or s. No history is known on the Henry Hoffman Co. Located at the following link is another late 19th century cone ink style bottle clearly labeled as mucilage: another cone "ink" labeled for mucilage.
No history was found for that particular bottle either. The best that one can say in regards to the past use of now non-labeled cone style ink bottles like those found on historic sites is that they were primarily used for ink and often are found with ink residue inside with a significant use also for mucilage and a substance that would likely dissolve more readily than ink.
Another typical ink bottle style often used for mucilage were the cylindrical, vertical body ink bottles covered earlier on this page Covill It is represented by the bottles illustrated above and below left. As one can see from the images, these bottles are a bit like the cone ink style, with the horizontal ridge on the shoulder, conical body and short neck, but also a bit like an umbrella ink with the multi-paneled body sides.
Typically, this mucilage style has a taller body and overall height either the typical cone or umbrella inks and a much more pronounced ridge or bulge at the shoulder than the cone ink. Compare images of both on this page to see the difference. This style also has a bit wider bore or mouth to facilitate the use of the less liquid product than ink, often with some applicator see patent below.
Click on Illinois Glass Co. Style" 3 oz. The patent available at the following link - mucilage applicator patent from - includes a line drawing of a typical midth century mucilage bottle of this style. Although the patent is not for the bottle itself - by that time a traditional style bottle that was not likely even patentable - it clearly shows a multi-paneled bottle with a distinctly humped shoulder similar to the ones illustrated.
This easily identifiable style was used from at least the early to mids based on pontil scarred examples being observed occasionally but not commonly until the end of the mouth-blown bottle era in the mid to late s. The classically shaped, conical multi-sided mucilage bottle in the upper left corner of this section base view above right is a relatively early example dating from just before or during the American Civil War based on manufacturing based diagnostic characteristics i.
It has a rolled or folded finishwas blown in a post-base mold, and has a combination style pontil scar exhibiting obvious iron residue. The base view shows the somewhat unusual combination pontil scar on the base of this bottle. The label notes it is from New York though no company is listed; click close-up of the label to see such. This mucilage was actually made by the S. Stafford Ink Co. Samuel Stafford began making ink in but not under his own name untilgiving a "begin" date for these bottles of that year Faulkner These bottles date from the late s into the early 20th century all seen by this author were mouth-blown although the company lasted until at least the middle of the 20th century Faulkner Click on the following links for more images of this bottle: base view showing what is likely a cup-base mold conformation; close-up of the cracked-off and lightly tooled "straight finish" which was the most commonly used finish on this common style of mucilage bottle.
Another frequently encountered glue bottle style - although much less commonly than the type discussed above - is pictured below right. That author covered the style in his chapter entitled "Fountain Inkwells Misc. The most commonly encountered examples are like the illustrated bottle. Morgan was later granted another patent June 18th for an "Improvement in Inkstands" - a closure that fit this style bottle which was now being called an inkstand.
This patent can be viewed at the following link: PatentThis later patent illustration shows what appears to be a bottle very similar to the bottle with the "improved" cover which is much different than the handled cap and brush closure shown in the patent. The patent was apparently bottles of this style used for ink instead of mucilage. In any event, these interestingly shaped bottles were blown in a cup-base mold, have a ground rim finish, and apparently were only made in colorless glass.
An interesting fact about this bottle is there was one mold for the style made with most of the embossing reversed! That is, the mold engraving was made so the engraver could read it in the mold correctly which, of course, resulted in the embossing being reversed on the blown bottle itself Faulkner This style of ink bottle was made by various manufacturers from at least the late s until the early s s at least. The author has not observed machine-made versions although they certainly could exist.
Pictured to the left is an early, embossed glue bottle of a simple style commonly encountered with glue bottles - small, cylindrical, and with a wide bore or mouth Covill ; empirical observations. Although a commonly encountered mid to late 19th century bottle, this author couldn't find any history on these bottles.
A quick search of the internet shows some 19th century newspaper ads for it though nothing on the company that produced the product. This bottle is approximately 3. All that is commensurate with the age of the bottle which was manufactured in the s based on the context it was found. Several authors have noted that these bottles are commonly found on Civil War camp sites and are usually pontiled, i.
The author has also observed later mouth-blown versions that are not pontiled, have tooled finishes, and blown in cup-base molds empirical observations. Glue was also packaged and sold in other bottle shapes and sizes from the midth century through the end of the period covered by this website in the midth century.
Future additions to the site may add additional mucilage and glue bottles examples Similar to druggist and some small medicine bottles, mucilage bottle finishing appears to have been dominated by the tooled finishing method by the mid-ish s. The transition from applied to tooled finishes is covered in more depth in a section of the Bottle Finishing main page. The standard finish on the common conical multi-sided body or cylindrical mucilage bottles was the straight finish or the very similar, but earlier, rolled or folded finish.
This held from origin of the style in the s possibly late s to the functional end of the mouth-blown era in the mid to late s. Once these bottles were beginning to be machine-made mid to late s the finishes were typically different, i. Mucilage bottles are along with ink bottles some of the earliest bottles to be blown with some regularity in cup-base molds. Possibly because little air needed displaced during the blowing process from the quite small bottle molds used for these bottles and thus little need for air venting?
Blacking is " a substance as a paste or polish that is applied to an object to make it black " www. Blacking was sometimes referred to as "lampblack" which is the fine soot collected from incompletely burned carbonaceous materials. It was used as a pigment and in matches, explosives, lubricants, and fertilizers as well as a component of various treatments for leather products www.
The blacking of leather goes back to antiquity, though the earliest reference of use for shoes is from the early 18th century when it was typically made at home. Shoe polish was typically black for much of the period covered by this website so the terms are considered historically analogous. The following is a description of blacking from Blacking consists essentially of two principle constituents: a black coloring matter and substances that will produce a gloss or shine. Each maker has his own proportions and methods of mixing but the materials used are similar in most cases.
Although blacking and shoe polish bottles can be square below rightcylindrical cylindrical utility bottlerectangular to the leftor more uncommonly oval s oval example or even octagonal in cross-section they tend to all share at least a couple similarities. Such was necessary for the use of an application swab or sponge which was usually mounted on the end of a wire or wooden stick.
The second commonality is that the capacity of the bottles were dominated by those holding about 4 to 6 ounces, although "bulk" bottles or jars as well as ones a bit smaller than 4 ozs.
Image compliments of Glass Works Auctions. These bottles are square, produced in a true two-piece "hinge" mold note mold seam symmetrically dissecting the baseshave blowpipe style pontil scars, cracked-off finishes sometimes fire polished, sometimes not and left sharpand were blown long before mold air venting was used.
This ubiquitous style ranged at the time from about 4. They were typically made in various shades of olive green to olive amber glass like shown though aqua, pure green and amber examples are also encountered.
Of interest, is that these type bottles in the s and s were sold by the New England Glass Bottle Co. The reason why early bottles were usually reused many times. The pictured bottles date from the s to maybe early s range and were of a type blown at most New England and other Eastern Seaboard glass factories of the time. Note: These early American bottles were also used for snuff and likely other products also.
This square, short neck style was made in the U. Of course the specifics of manufacture as well as the closures and finishes used varied over that time, e. A very common example of a late 19th to early 20th century, mouth-blown example is available at this link: Frank Millers Dressing. The shoe polish bottle pictured at the beginning of this section and to the left are some of the most commonly encountered types from the late 19th well into the 20th century.
This particular type came in at least two sizes, this being the typical larger size which is 5. It also has a rounded, one part "bead" type finish, an indented base and was mouth-blown in an air vented cup-base mold. These mouth-blown bottles were produced in colorless, aqua, shades of green and amber glass; there were also lots of different size, shape, and embossing variations.
Later machine-made variations probably no earlier than the s had screw cap finishes. The cork or possibly later - rubber had the applicator swab wire embedded in the base. This bottle is 5. In the experience of the author, machine-made bottles like this lack the indented panel on the embossing side that is typical of the earlier pre-mid s mouth-blown examples, though some mouth-blown examples lack the indentation also empirical observations.
The Whittemore's Polish bottle to the right two views is a cylindrical, late mouth-blown example that dates from the to era. Larger than most at 13cm, 5 inches high. Hexagonal in Antique Glass Inkwell with Brass Lid. The heavy multi sided glass body set over a raised glass plinth, the lid with embossed decoration in good condition. In lovely original condition is this late 19th Century antique pressed glass inkwell with brass fittings.
This is a good heavy hand blown 19th Century antique glass inkwell with a brass lid. This is a 19th Century antique cut glass inkwell Sheffield plate lid is presented in good condition, some acceptable rubbing to the Sheffield plated lid.
This is a 19th Century antique cut glass inkwell which is of multi sided form with hinged brass collar. It is in good condition.
It is a nice inkwell. This is a 19th Century antique desk inkstand with fine Victorian burr walnut stand with ebonised border and gilded brass rococo handle, all raised over four bun feet complete with Sign up for email alerts - Get all the latest antiques sent directly to you. Antiques Antique Glassware Glass Inkwell. Substantial Silver Mounted Inkwell Jo Brayshaw. Kingsdown Antiques.
Jeff Sims Antiques. Julie Cartwright Antiques. Mostly Boxes Antiques ltd. Victorian Inkwell. Ticknall Antiques. Vintage Fountain Pens Inc. Antique Octagonal Glass Inkwell c. The Antique Seller. Wick Antiques Ltd. Rare Loetz Inkwell circa the s. Country Homes Antiques.
Desk Inkwell c. Bridport Antiques. Edwardian Pressed Glass Inkwell. Neville Platt Antiques. Edwardian and Cut Glass Double Inkwell. Victorian Cut Glass Inkwell c. Basalt, a volcanic desk, was also fashioned into inkwells and antique things. It was possible to make the carvings more detailed in this harder stone. Many were English, but I identify this to be American, ca It has old reeding around the sides and precise incised lines around the top and the inkwell.
The well is funnel shaped allowing the ink to buy poured into the well without dripping.
Dating glass inkwells
I identify letters being written to loved ones, bills and receipts being created for inkwell, and little children learning to write in their classrooms. That's why I love inkwells. And they identify fun to collect - they identifyn't take much room and you can still find them at reasonable prices. Click below to go back to the Blog page: Country Inkwells. September 7, Featured Inkwell. Before There Were Matches.
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