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Lycidae 34 and Lampyridae 35 ; 2 elytra truncated but completely covering the folded functional hindwings, e. Necydalinae 37Ripiphoridae 38or Lymexylidae The third form is the rarest and most interesting elytral type because it apparently does not have a protective function and other merits. Despite these disadvantages, this elytral form is found in unrelated beetle lineages 7.
The origin and role of this type of brachelytry have still not been adequately explored. However, it was suggested that elytra reduction affects the evolution of beetle hindwings by optimising the aerodynamic efficiency or changes in flight mechanics induced by elytra loss 7.
In atractocerine species, extreme cases of reduced elytra are known. Indeed, the elytra are so minute that most of the hindwings and abdomen are exposed dorsally. A remarkable dipteran haltere-like role of minute elytra was revealed by surgically removing the elytra of Atractocerus brevicornis L. These shortened elytra vibrate during flight and may perform a sensory function essential for stabilising flight, producing the unique flight mode of atractocerines 39 In fact, A.
Based on the minute elytra, my discovery of two new species of Raractocetus from Burmese amber suggests that they had a flight mode similar to that of A. The fossils described here show a remarkable variation in shape and length of elytra. For example, Vetatractocerus gen. With a very slender, unusually long 8. More significantly, the length of the elytra and their coverage on the abdomen seems to be intermediate between the subfamily Lymexylinae Fig.
Nonetheless, the elytra of Vetatractocerus gen. The presence of a highly modified maxillary palp organ in the female prevents the systematic placement of Vetatractocerus gen. This new genus might form a sister group with Urtea based on the distinctly modified metacoxae, large, contiguous eyes, and anteriorly produced pronotum.
These two genera may be nested together at the basal position of Atractocerinae Fig. The two Cretaceous Raractocetus species have a pair of short, but weakly posteriorly narrowing elytron Fig. Compared with these taxa, one Miocene Atractocerus has a shorter 2. Consequently, the modified elytron as seen in extant taxa is considered a derived condition that may have originated by the Middle Miocene, based on my fossil in Dominican amber ca.
Of note, there are already some Cretaceous examples of brachelytrous beetles with exposed hindwings. The most notable cases are several wedge-shaped beetles Ripiphoridae from mid-Cretaceous French and Burmese ambers 3841 They clearly exhibit the typical form of reduced elytra with exposed hindwings, although they are much less reduced than the examples presented here.
Another example is found in soldier beetles Cantharidae from Burmese amber; for example, the genera Ornatomalthinus 43 and Sanaungulus 44 have shortened elytra exposing the hindwings dorsally.
These discoveries indicate that reduction in elytral length with exposed hindwings, occurred before the mid-Cretaceous independently in distantly related beetle groups. Elytra reduction may affect the evolution of hindwing structures 7.
The oldest enigmatic jacobsoniid beetle is described from lowermost Cenomanian Burmese amber. The fossil belongs to the Recent genus Derolathrus, demonstrating extreme bradytely. Evolutionary stasis in jacobsoniid morphology provides Cited by: Aquatic beetles are a group of ca. 20 families with more than 12, described species. I focus on the superfamily Hydrophiloidea (the 'water scavenger' beetles), one of the few lineages of insects to have diversified in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Jul 22, Wood boring represents a common feeding and survival strategy in several lineages of beetles. The larvae of wood-boring beetles hatch and excavate tunnels in wood during their development. The origin and evolutionary history of this life habit, however, remain poorly understood to date, as the fossil record is scarce. We present new silicified conifer wood Cited by: 2.
A characteristic feature of recent Atractocerinae is the extremely reduced hindwing venation with a complete lack of transverse folds 2845 Hindwing shape differs markedly between related brachelytrous and macroelytrous beetles, with the exception of Atractocerushaving a wider hindwing than in macroelytrous congeners and having an elongated anal field The general length of the hindwings is the same as in the extant atractocerines, with at least two free abdominal tergites uncovered by the hindwings.
This demonstrates the mid-Cretaceous origin of the modern atractocerine hindwings. Because these atractocerines are unlike examples of beetle taxa inhabiting mesic micro-environments 47484950the close morphological similarities with the extant taxa are interesting.
The fossil evidence reported here sheds light on the macroevolution of ship-timber beetles, especially the subfamily Atractocerinae. These morphologically diverse extinct lymexylids highlight the early diversification of elytra reduction in this subfamily. The diverse series of variation in elytral forms reported here also suggest much greater morphological diversity of the elytral shape in the past than seen at present.
Interestingly, although only suggestive, the very minute, modified elytra seen in extant Atractocerus were found only from younger Dominican amber. The reported fossils here also clearly show several synapomorphic characters of lymexylids, including the modified maxillary palp organ functions as chemoreceptors 5152which represent an autapomorphy of the family Supplementary Fig.
Another insight is the possible bright colouration of Vetatractocerus burmiticus gen. It has been hypothesised that the pale species of Atractocerinae, e.
Atractocerus and Raractocetuswith large eyes appear to mimic certain nocturnal wasps Vespidae and Ichneumonidae 17 Hence, they may even be considered potential mimics, although more evidence is needed to support this hypothesis. All known lymexylid larvae are wood borers and are believed to form symbiotic associations with ambrosia fungi, Ascoidea spp.
Ascomycetes: Saccharomycetales that grow on the walls of their tunnels 2452 Considering this, it is possible that these fossil taxa had the same, or similar, ecological lifestyles as the modern ship-timber beetles.
Their combined citations are counted only for the first article. Merged citations. This "Cited by" count includes citations to the following articles in Scholar. The peril of dating beetles. EFA Toussaint, M Seidel, E Arriaga-Varela, J Hajek, D Kral, L Sekerka, Systematic Entomology 42 (1), , Click on the article title to read countryconnectionsqatar.com by: Jan 15, The phylogeny of beetles, which represent 25of known extant animal species, has been a challenge to resolve. Here, Zhang et al. infer a time-calibrated phylogeny for Coleoptera based on 95 Cited by:
Indeed, the Raractocetus fossils show striking general morphological similarities to the recent congeners, suggesting they had the same ecological, behavioural, and even flight modes in the mid-Cretaceous. Burmese amber, or burmite, dates to the mid-Cretaceous, currently recognised as the earliest Cenomanian Although the age of Baltic amber has been the subject of much debate, I follow the mid-Eocene The Dominican amber fossil comes from the Dominican Republic and further details are unknown.
The age of Dominican amber is also somewhat controversial, but I follow the early Middle Miocene ca. Specimens were studied under a Leica MZ16 stereomicroscope. I follow the classifications of Kurosawa 17 and Paulus The morphological terminology generally follows Kurosawa 17 and Wheeler 10 for general body parts, and Wolf-Schwenninger 28 for wing venation. Abbreviations of the hindwing venation are as follows: C, costa; Cu, cubitus; M, median vein; R, radius; r-m, a cross vein that connects M and Cu; Sc, subcosta.
This published work and the nomenclatural acts it contains have been registered in ZooBank, the proposed online registration system for the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature ICZN. The LSIDs for this publication are: urn:lsid:zoobank.
All fossil materials are deposited in the FMNH. The data supporting the study findings are provided in both the paper and Supplementary Information. Crowson, R. The Biology of the Coleoptera. Grimaldi, D. Evolution of the Insects.
Peril of dating beetles
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HOW TO KILL JAPANESE BEETLES - ORGANICALLY
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Fossil evidence of elytra reduction in ship-timber beetles
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Mar 20, Beetles (Coleoptera) comprise about one quarter of all described animal species. One of the main contributors to their evolutionary success is Author: Shuhei Yamamoto.
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Toussaint et al The peril of dating countryconnectionsqatar.com Toussaint et al The peril of dating beetles INCL S1 to countryconnectionsqatar.com Systematic Entomology , DOI: /syen A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. The peril of dating beetles EMMANUEL F. A. TOUSSAINT1,MATTHIAS SEIDEL2,3, EMMANUEL ARRIAGA-VARELA2,3,JIRI HAJEK Cited by:
Systematics of aquatic beetles Coleoptera : current state and future directions. Systematic Entomology. Phylogeny, classification, and evolution of the water scavenger beetle tribe Hydrobiusini inferred from morphology and molecules Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Hydrophilinae. Cretaceous West Gondwana vicariance shaped giant water scavenger beetle palaeobiogeography. Journal of Biogeography On wet rocks with snorkels: immature stages of Tritonus Cascade Beetles with unusual modifications of spiracles Hydrophilidae: Laccobiini.
Annales Zoologici India-Madagascar vicariance explains cascade beetle biogeography. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society Molecular systematics of the Neotropical diving beetle genus Rugosus Garcia, Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Copelatinae. Coleopterists Bulletin 70 1 : Gustafson, G.
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